What If We Reach The Deadline End Date Of My Course Online-Distance And Have Not Completed The Entire Course, Can I Expand Enrollment?
Taking into account the personal circumstances and having justified it, in each case can be extended for 15 days free of charge courses of 400 hours or less and for 30 days on top schedule.
Do I get the amount I paid back if I cancel a course?
Online courses or in distance no amount is returned once the course has started. In classroom courses in case of commenting the withdrawal once the course has started proportionate share should be paid for services rendered. In online courses and distance once the course has started there is no right of withdrawal.
Who uses the polygraph in Spain?
Polygraph in Spain. While the polygraph technique is constantly evolving since its creation in 1935, in Spain the rise of use came from the hand of Israeli consultants in front of which security was placed Haim Victor Cohen of the Israel Polygraph Institute in Tel Aviv, where he was also a teacher and mentor of Jose Antonio Fernandez de Landa, the first Spanish in providing services related to the polygraph.
Although its design is older, we can say that the polygraph was born on February 2, 1935 from the hand of Dr. Leonard Keeler, who officially first used the polygraph to interrogate two suspects of having committed an armed robbery in Portage (Wisconsin). The detainees were subsequently convicted by a court previously admitted the results obtained with the Keeler polygraph.
Poligrafo.com operational statistics:
32% Evaluation of family affairs and partner.
21% Media, TV producers.
16% Business Services, resolution of internal conflicts.
15% Psychological evaluations. Couples therapy.
13% Courses Forensic Psychophysiology (polygraph) through European Polygraph Academy.
3% At the request of lawyers and detectives. Presentation of expert opinions in court cases.
Is there any law regulating the application of the polygraph in the european union?
In Spain and in the rest of the territory of the European Union there is no law prohibiting voluntary testing credibility assessment using a polygraph.
Some member countries establish use limitations in certain cases, such as those related to hiring workers.
Some member countries establish use limitations in certain cases, such as those related to hiring workers.
Consequently, it can be said that whenever the privacy and fundamental rights of the person is respected, and he/she freely accepted the test giving their written consent, there is no obstacle to its implementation.
Professionals dedicated to providing polygraph services are required specialized knowledge in the field, which was due to have higher education or have belonged to the security forces or research for a minimum of five years. Among its values to take precedence is loyalty to their work, professional ethics and impeccable social behavior, lack of police and criminal records.
Note.- In Spain the legislation articulates the possibility that people who have been arrested or convicted can exercise in right of cancellation of their police and criminal records. However, this legal situation does not affect affiliates of the European Polygraph Association, American Polygraph Association and Israeli Computerized Polygraph Association, among other professional associations of polygraph experts. These associations exclude the possibility that members can access the same counting on police or criminal record. It is cause for immediate expulsion if the events occurrs after being affiliated. Doubtful people proceed no place in the exercise of polygraphy. Then, in Spain and in the rest of the territory of the European Union there is no law prohibiting voluntary testing credibility assessment using a polygraph.
Is there any limitation for a person to take a polygraph test?
No cases have been reported in which the application of the polygraph may affect the health of a person, however there are restrictions that limit their application to persons under these circumstances:
- When the browser detects that the person to assess is a victim of any violence, pressure or coercion.
- There will be excluded from evaluation minors who do not have proper authorization or presence of parents or guardians. As a general rule no evidence apply to children under 14 years under any circumstances.
- People with serious heart diseases.
- Women in advanced pregnancy.
- People diagnosed with some type of mental disorder such psychotic (schizophrenia, paranoid delusional disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder) even when under drug treatment.
Lie detector. Is there any guarantee of privacy in Polygraph?
Yes, it is regulated that the polygraph test or lie detector is always carried out in a private setting, without the interference of third parties, except in cases where an interpreter is needed.
At the time of giving consent to the test, you indicate who can know the results.
In any case it observes the provisions in the Law 15/1999, of December 13, Protection of Personal Data. (Polygraph or Lie detector.) At the time of giving consent to the test, the examined indicates who can know the results. This regulation is part of the ethical code of the European Polygraph Association and all its international affiliates.
The so-called lie detector, truth machine or polygraph is a particular type of measuring instrument used for recording physiological responses. Generally records changes in blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, nerve stimulation and galvanic response or skin conductance, which are generated to certain questions that are the realized to the subject under the test. The polygraph has its wider use in the intelligence agencies and police, especially in the United States and other countries in its area of influence, which has been used to determine whether a person is lying or not. Today the polygraph is used by intelligence agencies, police and private sectors in more than ninety countries. In Europe it is mainly used in the allocation of some jobs by private companies and some security agencies.
As a general rule, except specific cases, questions will not be of application that might infringe the fundamental rights of the individual, having no place issues:
- Freedom of Worship.
- Sexual orientation
- Racial discrimination
- Political and union Affinities
Are always conclusive the polygraph results?The results of the polygraph. .The experience and polygraph operator training is essential when achieving reliable results. Poligrafo.com test using clinical methods and detection of toxic substances in the body to prevent any attempted fraud based on the use of drugs that inhibit the central nervous system or CNS. Using this type of test is voluntary, if it's a private matter, without public significance and mandatory when assessing the testimony is related to a forensic expert with legal effect. Modern digital polygraphs are designed to provide automated results, which are divided into three groups:
NDI (No deception indicated) DI (Deception Indicated) I (Inconclusive).
However the final decision is up to the examiner, who will determine through a verbal or written expert report if there was no deception or yes in the responses evaluated.
Nota.- .- In cases audited DI (Detect Deceit) Polígrafo.com requires the opinion of another expert of the team to reinforce the view of the first examiner or detect data that have gone unnoticed, thus minimizing the possibility of errors related to the human factor.
Sometimes it is necessary to perform a second test to define the results.
Multidrug Test performes quickly and safely realizing simultaneous detection of 10 drugs of abuse in urine in a single analysis of five minutes and defines the presence of Ecstasy, Cocaine, Marijuana, Morphine, Methadone, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates, Phencyclidine.
Polygraph tests are better known as "lie detector test". The theory behind these tests is that the human body reacts to certain levels of stress when dishonest answers to questions given. The polygraph reads the subtle changes in skin perspiration and heart rate to provide a drawing that can be read to determine if the lies have. Although polygraphs are very technical to read accurately, when the basics are understood, it is possible to discover areas in which there is lies.
When is the polygraph applicable?
Whenever is necessary to determine in reliable scientific credibility of a witness regardless of the nature of the case. By applying the polygraph are solved complex situations with greater reliability and objectivity, quickly and economically.
En Poligrafo.com we recommend the application of polygraph in matters relating to:
- Maritalinfidelities related or marital issues.
- Family issues whose resolution is intended private, without the intervention of authorities or external agents.
- Maintaining trust: couples, partners, employees, etc.
- Detection of harmful habits: compulsive gambling, drug abuse, alcohol. In combination with our test Multidrug.
- Lawyers: verification and accreditation of witnesses for his defense in civil and criminal proceedings.
- Expert in judicial proceedings: forensic psychophysiology, multidisciplinary expertise, combined with psychological assessment techniques.
- Conducted by private detectives detectives in need of an effective tool in diagnosing the veracity of a witness, especially when there is no evidence or reliable evidence to help them in resolving inquiries: internal theft, fraud, questionable behaviors, etc.
- Control of employees from private security companies: bodyguards, chauffeurs, transportation of funds, use of firearms.
- Industrial espionage: risk prevention, detection elements harmful to the company.
- Temporary employment, where market needs require a fast and reliable selection. Combined with test of honesty.
- Cargo handling logistics, storage and transport urgent. These companies are affected by internal theft endemic.
- Handling money and values: cashiers / as, dependent on jewelry.
- Handling confidential information: strategic, projects, designs, personal secretaries and staff.
- Casinos & gaming industry: selection and periodic monitoring of employees.
- Industrial espionage: risk prevention and detection elements harmful to the company.
- Checking references and background of immigrants, non-EU foreigners, etc.
To what extent influences the experience of an examiner the reliability of the polygraph?
Reliability polygraph. In polygraphy happens as in any other discipline, with knowledge, training and practice you can become a good professional.
To the polygraph professionals the society requires us more than anyone ethics, reliability and accuracy in our work, not in vain our clients put in our hands issues that can affect considerably the present and perhaps their future.
The best teacher, the time; the best science, experience!
When sitting in front of a polygraph choosing the right professional is essential, otherwise we run major risks. An incompetent or unqualified professional may incur serious mistakes in delivering the results of a polygraph evaluation. These polygraph errors are defined as:
False Positive: Allocate a lie to someone who is telling the truth.
False Negative: Allocate actually true when someone is lying.
The reliability of polygraph in the hands of an expert can reach 95-98%, however in the hands of a beginner does not exceed 60% in a range of 10 questions.
Conclusion: in the polygraphy happens as in other professions, the more important is the evidence or issue to be addressed more to worry choosing the right professional. Otherwise we will not only lose money, but what is most important and fundamental, we will put at risk our credibility.
Forensic Psychophysiology is a discipline that has developed enormously in recent years to study a scientific and rigorous way of verification of testimony by physiological indicators. This discipline has been accompanied by numerous fields of study, real cases and laboratory.
There are experimental studies that point to the polygraph technique as the most reliable forensic investigation behind DNA testing. The polygraph is RELIABLE.
What is the polygraph or lie detector?
Truth Machine. The polygraph (*) is an instrument of great sensitivity and precision, able to record continuously in a graph physiological variables that occur in the body of an individual psychologically stimulated by certain questions. The polygraph is also known in popular parlance as Lie Detector” or “Truth Machine”.
Actually the polygraph only records physiological variables emanating from an individual emotionally stimulated. The decision of whether a person is lying or telling the truth corresponds to good judgment and professional experience of the operator, the real lie detector.
The University of Utah, USA, created a new scientific discipline called Forensic Psychophysiology, responsible for the development of research programs on the implementation of the polygraph in different fields.
Through forensic psychophysiology have been implemented new techniques for validation and accreditation of testimonials based on the results of laboratory tests and actual cases. Statistical data obtained show that the reliability of polygraph is above most forensic investigation techniques, except for DNA.
Studies at the University of Utah (Dr. Raskin) and the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University (Dr. Olsen) assisted by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States, have allowed the development of powerful computer programs used in digital polygraphs from 6 a 12 channels such as Stoelting CPSpro model, are able to determine the veracity of a witness with a reliability above 95%.
Validated by the departments of Justice and Defense of US, certified by leading international polygraph associations, new digital polygraphs are used by numerous government security agencies and intelligence from more than 90 countries.
(*) Polígrafo.- According to RAE: who is dedicated to the study and cultivation of polygraphy; art of writing for different modes extraordinary secret, so that the writing is not intelligible but for those who can decrypt it.
The term also refers to the operator of a machine capable of recording different physiological variables of a human being, intending to determine the credibility of a witness through the application of forensic psychophysiology related techniques.
How does the Truth Machine works, what is the scientific basis?
To explain the operation of this measuring system we must explain that a normal human brain reacts autonomously and involuntarily to any stimulus, so that when a person lies, suddenly physiological and emotional reactions occurs in your body, -the activation phase-, which in no way you can master in a short space of time. Blood pressure, respiration and electrical conductivity of the skin suffer significant changes, which in turn are capable of algorithmic measurement.
When we have a stimulus in the form of a question, that causes us fear or fear of being discovered, our body reacts involuntarily, being activated, so that we are ready to face any reaction of fight (deny / lying) or escape ( confess / admit) to protect us, because our most basic impulse is survival. How does the Truth Machine works, what is the scientific basis?
Activation occurs as follows:
The frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex by the action active the hypothalamus adrenal gland. The adrenal gland adrenaline discharge. Pupils dilate, chest widens, the heart expands, increasing the blood supply, which in turn causes an increase in blood pressure. Muscles contract, the liver starts to release glucose to feed the muscles. Pale skin and bronchi dilate in order to increase the volume of oxygen that our bodies need to increase physical performance.
Changes in contraction (miosis) and dilation (stenosis) of the pupils are also produced, as well as micro-tremors in the vocal cords causing frequency variations in the voice.
What is the lie detector test, how it develops?
Generally 90/120 'are necessary to properly administer a polygraph test. It requires an adequate environment, away from the interference of external factors that may trigger emotional alterations in person to evaluate, such as noise, inadequate temperature, distractions, third parties, etc.
A test polygraph consists of four main phases:
- Interview, where the circumstances to assess are exposed, these being related to the past, with an alleged event occurred prior to the day of the test. For a successful polygraph assessment is essential to have accurate information on the subject to be treated, we need to know all circumstances, from the oldest to the most recent.
In no case can evaluate the credibility of a witness regarding intentions or desires, as lately you can see in some TV programs, that's not polygraphy, it has no validity.
- Creation and acceptance of a specific questionnaire to collect questions carried out during the polygraph test. All questions must be understood by the person to be evaluated before proceeding to the next phase.
- Polygraph evaluation, connection and data collection through graphics and specific software. The assessed person must answer "Yes" or "No" to each of the questions that will be presented during the test.
- Analysis of results.
Before proceeding, we will check the suitability of the person to be evaluated, that is, that does not reveal serious physical or psychological pathologies level that impede to be tested like this. Compliance is given to the above using a personal questionnaire aimed to know their health status, recent intake of drugs, etc.
Every question is to be made during the test should be read and explained previously. In no case surprise questions as a trap will be given.
The test is always given on a voluntary basis. In any case, the person to be evaluated must give their written consent, accepting that they know and understand the questions, before being connected to the machine.
The results are given by an expert report, strictly confidential, which it refers to the recipient by means of their choice, email, registered mail, etc.